Part Two



evidence, research, source.

The variables of interest are not directly measured but there is evidence that suggests that many parental behaviors are consistent over time (Roberts, Block &; Block, 1984), are consistent with external observer reports (Shaffer, Saunders &; Owens, 1986), and are predictive of later behaviors (McCrae &; Costa, 1988).

Few studies have tested the first mechanism; however, the empirical evidence that does exist supports the notion that reduction in demographic variability will increase persistence (Den Boer 1981, Forney and Gilpin 1989).

Adverbs in order of frequency following suggests

strongly, further, perhaps, simply, clearly, potentially, vaguely, positively, repeatedly, suggests precisely (the opposite), likewise, indirectly, implicitly, immediately, generally, extremely, exactly, certainly, essentially.

By choosing which adverb you place before the verb suggest, you evaluate the weight of evidence and the degree to which you believe it supports a particular idea. Group the adverbs above from the most certain (strongest) to the most uncertain (weakest). Then think of situations where these phrases might apply.


Reference to other writers’ ideas

According to Smith (2015), preventative medicine is far more effective, and therefore better adapted to the developing world. Smith points out/argues/maintains/claims/concludes/suggests/argues for/offers/proposes.

What may be the difference in meaning between these words? How could you make these verbs more or less confident in their claims?

Labelling Nouns

The following examples are taken from The Central European Journal of Public Policy. Group the following terms into a cline of positive and negative, fluid and static might also be useful criteria for categorizing the terms:

  • problem,
  • development,
  • process,
  • theory,
  • concept,
  • project,
  • fact,
  • crisis.

At the beginning of a reform process, the reform forces ought to focus on the most urgent problem.

Adjectives with problem:

  • serious,
  • major,
  • intractable,
  • perceived,
  • minor

However, one should realize that the differences between individual geographic components of Europe diminished during the 20th century in terms of economy, technology and, to an extent, also social anthropology. By virtue of this development, Europe as a whole is emerging as a reference framework.

Adjectives grouped as pairs:

Rural/urban: emotional/intellectual: uneven/full: initial/later: local/global: proposed/successful:

We understand implementation as a process that does not necessarily lead to the implementation of policy, but rather to the redefinition of its goals and reinterpretation of outcomes, that is to evolution (Majone and Wildavsky 1979; Lane 1987).

(With process in COCA it may be interesting to divide the adjectives according to positive and negative: fair and easy versus cumbersome and complicated).

Above all, the theory of political business cycles traditionally assumes that incumbents in liberal democracies benefit from favourable economic conditions and use monetary, fiscal and other policy instruments to reap electoral benefits.

(Which of the adjectives are subjective evaluations such as plausible?)

This was not accidental as several European empires had collapsed, the chief of which was the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy. Hence, Central Europe is a concept that reflects dramatic changes in the geopolitical system of the Continent after the first and second world conflagrations.

(COCA: positive versus negative with concept; important and original versus vague and problematic)

This project helps fulfil the strategic vision of the MU Strategic Plan 2011–2015 in the field of graduate and postgraduate studies of economic disciplines.

(pairs of opposites traditional versus original).

It is, for instance, an undisputed fact that the wealth of cultural activities correlates with the economic and political situation of a region.

(With fact adjectives that are more subjective and those more absolute: Curious and remarkable versus indisputable and incontrovertible).

These data document well that in spite of the budget cuts, the numbers of employees in the government sector and education sector (both public and private) remained stable during the crisis and the numbers of employees in health and social care services increased.

(Time versus quality: present, impending versus severe, deep).

The problem with modern society is, according to the communitarians, that the kind of societal development that the market and the state advocate has to a large extent eroded this substantial community of values and left civil society in a profound crisis of meaning.


  • the definition is unclear due to the indeterminate nature of the terms.

Fiscal welfare, or tax expenditure, as it is often labelled, is defined as follows: “a departure from the generally accepted or benchmark structure which produces a favourable tax treatment of particular types of activities or groups of taxpayers.” (OECD 1984, 7)

This definition presents two main problems for measuring and calculating tax expenditure:

  • What is a generally accepted or benchmark structure?

  • When is there a favourable tax treatment of particular groups?

    It is not clear theoretically, and even less empirically, what a generally accepted benchmark structure is.

  • definition: neutral.

    According to the definition of O’Donnell (1981), another author linked to the Marxist interpretation, the state is the political component of dominance (understood as the capacity, current and potential, of imposing one’s will regularly on another, despite but not necessarily against their resistance) in a territorially defined society.

  • Lack of a clear definition. A definition proposed.

    Transaction cost economists have been searching for an answer to the question of which transaction costs are joined with individual alternatives, yet the exact definition of these costs has not been settled to date. With regard to the purpose of this research, it is possible to define transaction costs as management costs connected either with the internal provision of a service or with providing and purchasing a service by contracting it out. Williamson (1981) describes transaction costs as “the costs ance structures”. In the context of this text, another definition of transaction of planning, adapting and monitoring task completion under alternative govern-costs can be used, namely one given by Pavel (2005): “any cost connected with implementing a given contract , besides production costs.” The transaction would never be carried out without these costs being incurred.

  • necessity for definition and lack of one.

    A precise definition of rural areas and rural population is clearly a precondition for any further policy action as well as policy definition, targeting, and evaluation. Nevertheless, such a definition is conspicuously absent from both the National development plan of the Czech Republic (NDP) and the Horizontal rural development plan for 2004–2006 (HRDP)

  • Explains why the definition may be useful in one context, but does not work in a policy context.

    This definition might be useful for maximizing the number of territorial units and population eligible for funding. But neither a precise monitoring of the localisation of projects nor an analysis of territorial differences and policy targeting is possible with such general definition. Second, the definition mentioned in the strategic documents considers as rural all municipalities with less than 2000 inhabitants. This “traditional” definition neglects the existence of suburban fringes whose dynamics and economic and social structure is incomparable with more remote localities. Therefore, this definition is not satisfactory for the purposes of rural policy implementation. Throughout the entire text of the document, it is unclear which object “rural” represents.

  • Positive definition.

    Multipolarity in accordance with the more extensive definition cited here is a distribution of power in which not only defence capabilities are important but also economic and cultural factors. This means that factors as different as the US debt to China and the dominating American film and music industry are both essential.

  • Acknowledging an authoritative source for a definition.

    Within the academia, John Ruggie’s definition is the dominant one. According to Ruggie, multilateralism entails three or more states whose relations should be characterized by three principles:

  • Pointing out problems related to an unclear definition.

    However, the literature pays less attention to whether different allocations of regulatory functions imply more or less successful regulatory outcomes, for example in terms of national compliance with EU water directives. This might be because of the difficulties related to conducting comparative studies and/or to the vague definition of compliance (Hartlapp and Faulkner 2009).

  • What happens when the definition is made broader.

    Substitution of the term crime by the term delinquency has at least two effects. First, it weakens or is supposed to weaken stigmatization by calling an “offence” (delikt) what would otherwise be a “crime” (zločin). Second, because of its looser definition, the term offence encompasses a broader array of acts, compared to the terms crime and petty offence (přestupek), including deviant behaviours that are not governed by the law.

    The approach in this course is to select phrases that fulfill functions that are used in academic writing. You will find many phrases in the accompanying handout. You can adopt these for your own writing, or you may wish to adapt them to suit your meaning. If we look at the Corpus of Contemporary American English, we can see many adjectives that can help us describe concept. Old, problematic, key, basic, interesting, alien, meaningful, new, important, difficult, underlying, traditional, simple, complex, European, popular.

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Without the context it is
difficult to say which of these adjectives are negative, neutral or positive. However, with the person beside you, try to categorize them as negative, neutral or positive. You may wish to provide a context which would make it clearer why the adjective seems negative, neutral or positive. This exercise also shows how writers express their own opinion using an objective noun (concept) and a subjective adjective (interesting) to indicate how they evaluate what they are writing about, here the concept.




The language of Academic Writing.

This course is based on three principles:

  1. We learn language in units or complete phrases not as individual words. We do not know a word (e.g. a noun) unless we know what adjectives normally accompany it, what verbs normally go before it or go after it. Does the word have a positive or negative tone to it? Is this word formal (academic) or informal (everyday/spoken)?
  2. We learn language by looking at real, authentic language used by real people in real situations.
  3. Students learn real English by finding out about real language, by discovering it themselves and selecting what is useful for their needs. This involves ignoring material or examples which are not relevant to them. It is not the teacher’s job to tell students what to learn and what to ignore. Students should develop the important skill to discriminate between what is useful for them and what is not useful. We learn by exploring and we all do that in different ways. Students can then develop to become independent learners who do not need constant help from their teachers.
  • The key to writing is reading.

    As children we learn to read before we learn to write. Reading high-quality academic writing assists students and professors in improving their own writing, by imitating and then adapting what they read to their own purposes, balancing, on the one hand, obeying the rules and conventions of academic writing, with developing their own individual style, on the other hand. If you want to write at (near-) native speaker academic level, then you need to read carefully the work of those who have already attained this level. The purpose of these exercises below is to show you what native speakers/competent users of English do when they publish academic work so that you can analyse it, copy, change and develop what you read.

  • What is the problem?

    When we write an academic text, we want it to sound academic. Not to use relatively simple and very useful verbs such as get, take, make and do all the time, as we have been successfully doing for ten or twenty years. For example, maybe we have used carry out research a few times and would like to use another verb that means the same. So, we look up carry out in a thesaurus online and see a list of verbs such as accomplish/achieve/execute/finalize /implement/perform, etc. As non-native speakers how can we be sure if any or all of these verbs go with (collocate with) the noun research? Do you say accomplish research? Maybe. Maybe not. The answer to this uncertainty is to use a corpus which is an electronic database of millions of words that shows us exactly what words (collocates) go with the key words (in our example research) that we are using. Which of the verbs accomplish /achieve etc. (see above) match the nouns below? (If you are doing this before class the Corpus of Contemporary American English will provide you with the answers – just enter the verb and see what nouns appear).


  1. agreements/details
  2. tasks/experiments

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c) policy/programs d tasks/goals e) programs/strategies f) success/results

The core problem is not that we do not know the meaning of the word research (it is easy enough to look it up in a dictionary), rather the problem lies in knowing how to use it. What verbs, adjectives and prepositions go with this key word? And what is uncommon or non-standard use?

(Using a thesaurus is sometimes useful, but often a dangerous approach to find synonyms as the danger of mismatching word is rather high, for non-native speakers).

How to use the Corpus of Contemporary American English

Please register with the Corpus of Contemporary American English before the course begins. It is free of charge and fun. You need to enter your email address when you register (top right on the screen). You can enter undergraduate as category, if appropriate. You can use COCA for a while without actually registering, but then you see an annoying message asking you to register and join the COCA family.


On the left of the screen you can see WORDS, let’s see how it works and enter RESEARCH and then click on SEARCH (with LIST clicked top left), then we see research appears 143,947 times in the corpus. Click on this number. We see many examples of research and the words around it; number 4, the verb that is used with research is present, an adjective is original, at well-known conferences. What does research do? Number 5 shows us ‘covered a range’, 11, tried to fix. Line 13 shows us the adjective ‘further’. To try to limit the amount of hits we receive, let’s go back to the original interface on the left and click on Academic under Sections. Now we find 84238 hits. We see a lot of the same concordance lines because many of the lines are unsurprisingly from an academic source. Good examples; 14, research is focused on, 19, research covers, etc. If you want to gain a more general impression of how research is used, click on SAMPLE 100 and you can see how this word is used in many different domains of the corpus.

This information is, however, rather haphazard, so let’s make the search more specific and create a list of the most frequent words that come before RESEARCH. We do this by inserting an asterisk * as a wildcard and then a space before RESEARCH, i.e. * research. We find some common words the, and, this but also future, previous, further, recent, empirical, current. If we leave no gap between the * and the word, then we get hits such as fieldresearch, doctoral/research.


words that are ‘friends’ with our key word RESEARCH are called collocates. If we want to gain an impression of the nouns, adjectives and verbs that are attracted to RESEARCH¸ then we click on COLLOCATES and ACADEMIC in the box numbered 1 under SECTIONS and see words such as scientific, indicates, conduct, previous, empirical, etc. These are the most common words that are used by academics when using the term research. If we select a few of them we can construct a sentence such as: previous scientific research conducted at the Wildau center indicates/suggests that … Click on the blue term to see concordance lines which give you many examples of how the term is used. If you wish to see more than one line, click on the left hand side MAG, either under Journal or Year and you will see more context and information about when and where it was published.


what are the different prepositions following research and what are their different uses? If we are interested in finding out which prepositions follow RESEARCH we enter in the WORDS box RESEARCH and the click on POS (Parts of Speech) LIST and then the arrow beside –SELECT- and then PREP.ALL and then SEARCH ( or research [i*]) and we see research on, in, at, into, for etc. By clicking on the blue research on we can see examples of how this is used.

When we click on RESEARCH AT we find many places. Can we be sure that this phrase always refers to location? If we click in RESEARCH AT in the WORD(S) box and then go to COLLOCATES and enter [nn*] (we are looking for nouns) and then put 0 in the left hand box and 3 in the right hand box (we are looking for words after the word not before) and SEARCH, then we see a list of nouns; University, State, College, Center, etc. which seems to confirm our assumption.


if we are interested in finding out which nouns follow RESEARCH we enter research and POS LIST noun.ALL or research [nn*] and find research center, institute, group etc.


if we are interested in finding out which verbs follow RESEARCH we enter research and POS verb.ALL (or research [v*]) and find shows, suggests, indicates, conducted, examining, using, supports, found, etc. N.B. has, is and was are rather misleading as they are auxiliaries for other verbs, e.g. research has shown. Another way to carry out this search is to put * after research [v*], it looks like research [v*]*, and then we get a longer string of words, e.g. research shows that/research suggests that/research is needed etc. You can also have research [v*] * * to find out other phrases; research has shown that, research is needed to, research is part of, research has been conducted.


if we are interested in finding out which adjectives follow RESEARCH we enter research and POS adj.ALL or research [j*] and find research as an adjective (as in research firm) and adjectives that collocate with research such as necessary, relevant, possible.

If we want to see both verbs and adjectives then we enter research [v*] [j*], and find research is available, research involving human, research is concerned, research is critical, etc.

Research as Noun or Verb:

As with many words in English research is both a noun and a verb. If we only want to look at research as a noun we enter research.[n*], as a verb research.[v*]. We can observe that research is used overwhelmingly as a noun, 138,724 versus 5,208.

RESEARCH has different forms both as a noun and a verb. If we wish to look at research as a verb we enter [research].[v] and hit SEARCH and we see research, researching, researched, researches. Similarly, [research].[n] will provide us with research and researches.

Phrases and Variation:

We have used the phrase it is difficult to say more than once and want to replace difficult with a synonym. We can enter it is * to say (a wild card) and we find a long list of adjectives: it is fair/safe/hard/impossible to say. You can vary these words to create a meaning similar to difficult, e.g. it is quite/rather hard to say by entering it is * difficult to say as a search string.

You can also specify a part of speech by inserting the part of speech such as noun [nn*] in the gap to see all the nouns that appear.

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It is also possible to use the wild card in the middle of
a word, e.g. un*ly provides us with unfortunately, unlikely, undoubtedly.
If we enter need to [v*], we find we need to
be/know/do etc. If we click on CHART we see how this is used in different domains, academic, newspaper, spoken.
Synonyms and comparing adjectives:

perhaps we would like to find words that mean (almost) the same as RESEARCH, then we give in [=research] and find study, research, investigation, examine, explore, inquiry, etc. We can also enter two words [=key] [=factor] and find synonyms for both, e.g. important element.

If we wish to see in what areas of COCA RESEARCH is used then we can click on CHART and SEARCH. COCA classifies words in sections covering SPOKEN, FICTION, MAGAZINE, NEWSAPER and ACADEMIC. Unsurprisingly, the amount of times RESEARCH is used per million is high with 925.02. Click on ACADEMIC and then, of course, within the realm of ACADEMIC we can see in which disciplines the terms is used HISTORY, EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES, POLITICAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, MEDICINE, etc. If you are working in a particular area, it may be useful to focus on the domain that matches your own course of study. If you click on the bar which then lights up, you can see how the key word (here research) is used in a specific genre/register of writing.



  • Key adjectives with RESEARCH: scientific, previous, empirical, necessary, relevant, possible.
  • Key verbs with RESEARCH: indicates, conduct, shows, suggests, conducted, examining, using, supports, found.
  • Synonyms for RESEARCH (as a noun): study, investigation, examination, exploration, inquiry.
  • Forms of RESEARCH: research, researching, researched, researches.
  • Research is used mostly in the academic domain.

Example sentence:

The previous research conducted at the UASW seems to suggest that …

Over To You:

in groups choose a key term such as RESEARCH and construct a profile with a summary as above.

Academic Phrases

Writing Introductions

Match the functions (1-8) with the phrases A-H):

  1. Establishing the importance of the topic
  2. Establishing the importance of the topic (time frame given)
  3. Highlighting a problem in the field of study
  4. Highlighting a controversy in the field of study
  5. Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of study (for research)
  6. Focus, aim, argument
  7. Outline of structure
  8. Explaining Keywords
  1. Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of ……
  2. This essay critically examines/discusses/traces ......
  3. In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in ....
  4. However, far too little attention has been paid to ......
  5. The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many ....
  6. However, a major problem with this kind of application is ....
  7. This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with ......
  8. Throughout this paper the term X will refer to/will be used to refer to .......

You are welcome to use the phrase above X has been thought of as a key factor in in your own texts. However, you may wish to vary the phrase as you would naturally do in your native language. If we enter as a key factor in The Corpus of Contemporary American English we find that the verbs that are used with this phrase are as follows:

Is discussed as/is identified as/emerges as/see as/describe something as/has been cited as/view something as

More simply, we can also enter [v*] as a key factor and we see a list: identify, seen, propose, mention, emerge, cite.

You can choose one of these phrases, one that you know already. Or you might get an idea for a phrase that you have read somewhere but have not known how to use yet. You can take the phrase as it is here or you may want to change it slightly, e.g. X has been identified as a key factor.

If we give in a wild card, that is as a * factor then we look at other adjectives that collocate with factor not just key. Looking at these, how many are positive and how many negative?



What alternatives (words that mean much the same) to key can you find?


In groups see if you can rephrase other phrases in A-H above, e.g.

Example: debate continues. For debate in COCA [=debate] we find question, discussion, argument. Under discussion we find went in the sense of went on, so we can paraphrase discussion goes on.

  1. best strategies
  2. critically examines
  3. pay little attention to
  4. rapid development
  5. major problem
  6. the term X will refer to

Referring to Literature

You should review the relevant and current literature that relates to your essay/dissertation topic. In other words, who are the most important people who have written on this topic and what have they said. Avoid using long quotations as that gives the impression that you do not really understand what you have read. Try to summarize in your own words and use short quotations; that shows you are in control of the material. Your review should summarize/paraphrase and evaluate this literature in an evaluative way. At least you can indicate which reference works were most helpful, concise and relevant to your essay.


Match the functions (A-J) with the phrases (1-10):

  1. General descriptions of relevant literature
  2. General reference to previous research/scholarly activity (usually more than one author)
  3. Reference to current state of knowledge
  4. Reference to single investigations in the past: researcher(s) as sentence subject
  5. Reference to single investigations or publications in the past: time frame prominent
  1. A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …
  2. In 1984 Jones et al. made several amino acid esters of X and evaluated them as water-soluble pro-drugs.
  3. Recent evidence suggests that … (Smith, 1996; Jones, 2009; Johnson, 2011)
  1. MIF has been found to oppose the anti-inflammatory actions of X

    on Y (Alourfi, 2014).

    1. Elsewhere, Smith has argued that ...

If we take the phrase recent evidence in sentence three and enter it into COCA we see 157 concordance lines with this phrase. The verbs that follow it are: suggests, shows, supports, points to, indicates, tells us.

Take one of the words or a phrase, e.g., a considerable amount of literature, and see what information COCA provides you with. Present this then to the class.

Being Critical

As an academic writer, you are expected to be critical of the sources that you use. This essentially means questioning what you read and not necessarily agreeing with it just because the information has been published. Being critical can also mean looking for reasons why we should not just accept something as being correct or true. This can require you to identify problems with a writer's arguments or methods, or perhaps to refer to other people's criticisms of these. Constructive criticism goes beyond this by suggesting ways in which a piece of research or writing could be improved.


Match the functions (1-8) with the phrases A-H):

  1. Introducing questions, problems and limitations (theory)
  2. Introducing questions, problems and limitations (method/practice)
  3. Identifying a study's weakness
  4. Offering constructive suggestions
  5. Highlighting inadequacies of previous studies
  6. Introducing other people's criticisms
  1. However, the research does not take into account pre-existing ... such as ...
  2. Most studies in the field of X have only focused on ...
  3. Many analysts now argue that the strategy of X has not been successful. Jones (2003), for example, argues that ...
  4. The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
  5. However, one of the problems with the instrument the researchers used to measure X was ...
  1. Smith’s paper would have been more convincing if he had considered …


Interactive language learning/flexible language acquisition (or google Flax language).

Click on LEARNING COLLOCATIONS in the group on the right of the screen under FLAX RESOURCE COLLECTIONS, then enter word and leave STANDARD ENGLISH BNC

We can enter a noun such as RESEARCH, then we can see what nouns go with research, what adjectives, nouns with OF and research, research with preposition and noun, etc. If we scroll down we see related words, in our case subject, systematic. There are also definitions taken from Wikipedia.

FLAX also provides us with synonyms for RESEARCH such as search, explore and investigate.

We first see RESEARCH as a noun and then as a verb when we scroll down further. On the top left we see FAMILY WORDS which shows us different form of the key word, here: researcher, researched, etc.

If we click on RESEARCH PROJECTS we see a list of words that collocate/go with RESEARCH PROJECTS, such as MARKETING RESEARCH PROJECTS, RESEARCH PROJECTS AIMS, etc. If we click on these words we see examples taken from corpora in the form of concordance lines. These lines show us how words are used in an authentic context.

If we click on the button MORE then we can observe other examples of word groups containing the key word RESEARCH.

We have done this by selecting first the British National Corpus (BNC) which is a general collection of different genres of British English, but we can also choose British Academic Written English (a corpus of 2500 university student writing texts) and find examples which might be more relevant to non-native speaker university students looking for models of academic writing.

Instead of clicking on LEARNING COLLOCATIONS, we can click on WEB PHRASES and click in something like ‘a very * question’ because we are interested in finding out what adjectives/words come before question. We find then a list comprising good, important, interesting etc. Valid, complex and pertinent can be found further down. By clicking on the number after the words we can get a list of the next words that follow our phrase.

British Academic Written English Collections and then to Social Sciences. When we click on LEXICAL BUNDLES we see a list of phrases that occur regularly at the beginning of sentences and in the middle.


When we are looking for similar phrases to what we know or have read, we can enter the phrase in Web Phrases and see what comes directly after our key phrase. We may then select a word or phrase that best suits what we wish to express. For example with the first phrase above ; A However, the research does not take into account pre-existing ...... such as ......

We can now enter the research does not into Web Phrases and we see many verbs that follow this phrase, e.g. support, involve, show. The one which might be most similar to take into account is does not include.

Similarly, we can take the second phrase; B Most studies in the field of X have only focused on ...... We can enter most studies have in Web Phrases and find concentrated, examined, reported, involved, investigated

Task: Look at the other phrases in the section above and see if you change modifiy or adapt them using FLAX.

Describing Methods

In the Methods section of a dissertation or research article, writers give an account of how they carried out their research. The Materials and Methods section should be clear and detailed enough for another experienced person to repeat the research and reproduce the results. Typical features with examples of this language are listed below.


Match the functions (A-H) with the phrases (1-10):

  1. Describing previously used methods
  2. Giving reasons why a particular method was adopted or rejected
  3. Indicating a specific method
  4. Describing the characteristics of the sample
  5. Indicating reasons for sample characteristics
  6. Describing the process: infinitive of purpose
  7. Indicating problems or limitations
  8. Describing the process: sequence words/phrases
  1. The subjects were selected on the basis of a degree of homogeneity of their ....
  2. This compound was prepared by adapting the procedure used by Zhao et al. (1990).
  3. It was not possible to investigate the significant relationships of X and Y further because the sample size was too small.
  4. To increase the reliability of measures, each X was tested twice with a 4-min break between
  5. Traditionally, X has been assessed by measuring….
  6. It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was to ...
  7. Once the positions had been decided upon, the Xs were removed from each Y and replaced by ...
  8. Just over half the sample (53%) was female, of whom 69% were ...

Tool number three Just The Word. The simplest corpus tool to use is called Just The Word. If we wish to vary sentence number 8 The experiments were carried out over the course of the growing period from .... we enter a key word such as experiment and type it into the box and click on combinations, then we see verbs with this key word experiment. We could then write conduct or undertake instead of carry out. Just The Word is easy to use because it groups the different parts of speech for you in clusters or groups. With our example, it distinguishes between experiment as a verb and as a noun. Then if you look at the right hand side you can quickly decide which word combining with experiment is of interest to you. Are you looking for the verb before experiment or the verb after it? Other nouns with experiment of prepositions with experiment. If you click on the blue example it will show you real examples of the word in use with concordance lines. It is not possible to extend these lines.


See what variation you can find in the sentences above using Just The Word.

Play the teacher:

Below are ten sentences, five of which are incorrect. First try to find which five are incorrect and then attempt to identify the mistakes.

  1. leads to difficulties for member states to protect their population from diseases acquired in other countries
  2. One of the main reasons why companies think about outsourcing is labor cost reduction
  3. They (WTO) rule laws concerning public health, food safety, small businesses, labor standards, culture, human rights and other social and economic procedures
  4. The whole idea is that the US and the EU will establish standards which will be adopted by other countries worldwide to make worldwide trade simpler.
  5. The 26th June 2015 will be remembered by many as a day America took a big step towards being an open-minded, tolerant and modern country.
  6. Milton Friedman, one of the most famous economists and simultaneously a representative of the free market economy, did not see any ethical or environmental responsibilities as a component of business activities.
  7. The depletion of tariffs and the development of general standards will increase the attractiveness for investments, also for investors from other, non-participating countries.
  8. Corporate Social Responsibility has been the subject of much debate recently.
  9. Outsourcing has become a huge topic especially within the manufacturing business
  10. Another major argument for outsourcing is the increased flexibility
Task 2:

Try to identify the mistakes in the following sentences and correct them using either The Corpus of contemporary American English, FLAX or Just The Word.

  • that the packaging industry needs to change their view towards an more environmentally friendly angle.
  • Steward then left the board of directors and came in with the penalty.
  • this paper means to highlight how their stereotype has changed
  • Though these given numbers are not exactly vast examples on how women have changed


Hedging for students: Opinion or Fact? The Might of the Shield (When you go into battle you might need a shield).

  • Who are we writing for? Ourselves or somebody else? How do we evaluate the material we are writing about and how do we shape the relationship with the reader? Will another person understand what you have written and will she agree with it?

  • Although at the beginning of this course we agreed that academic writing is objective and impersonal, at the same time the writer of an academic text is involved in a dialogue with his/her reader. In spite of the fact that we write alone, the activity of writing is complemented by the activity of reading. This is done by another person at another time in a different place which makes it difficult to perceive writing as social. Nevertheless, the writing is incomplete without the reader and therefore the writer must consider his reader during the writing process. You wish your argument to be accepted by the reader, that is a definition of a successful text.

    (The data might be objective truth, but our interpretation/conclusion is not! Objective fact, subjective evaluation) Hedging is a way of disarming criticism because it anticipates criticism or even incorporates it in the text.

  • When other people are absolutely certain of their opinion, it leaves no room for discussion. They normally assume that you agree with them and your role is to listen and simply say ‘Yes’. (This is the form of communication found in totalitarian states and boring friends). If we are interested in a discussion with other people, we express probability, not certainty. That provides space for the interlocutor to express other opinions. This process is called a dialogue. (In a functioning democracy this form of communication can be found).

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Especially since you are writing for a professor,
it may be appropriate not to appear too over-confident of the ideas you are presenting.

What do we (really) know?

  1. How many things are you absolutely sure of?

  2. How many things are you pretty sure of?

  3. How many things are you not sure of?

    Think about things that were thought of as true ten, twenty, fifty or a hundred years ago and now are regarded as less true or not true at all?

What is the evidence you have for these beliefs or claims? How high is your commitment to the statements you are making? If your evidence is less than 100%, you need to express that lack of certainty. You need to hedge. In other words, you probably want to qualify your statements.

People make judgements about truth and falsehood, certainty and doubt, probability and possibility, every day. It is part of the human condition that most of what we experience lies somewhere between these poles. Of course, there are some things that we feel more certain about than others and some things that we seriously doubt. However, we often are expressing opinions rather than stating facts. That is why there are so many ways to express hedging in English.

Ways to express hedging: auxiliary verbs, epistemic adjectives, adverbs and lexical verbs. (See each of these categories: can, possible, possibly, indicate.)

Auxiliary verbs and verbs that require another verb after it. The modal verbs we all know belong to this category: can/could, will/would, may/might, should.

There are many adjectives that express doubt or qualified certainty. Possible explanation/solution/reasons/causes/effects/problems.

If we enter * * [j*] explanation in the Corpus of Contemporary American English we see sequences of four words. ‘One possible explanation’ is the first one which we could call strongly hedged. ‘The most likely explanation’ could be seen as weakly hedged. Task: Group One should look at the lines of ‘* * [j*] explanation’ and group the lines into strongly and weakly hedged (or neutrally hedged). Other groups should take one of the following: solution/reasons/causes/effects/problems

One  explanation for the increase in soda is the high number of end-of-the year celebrations typica

This is the exception in the concordance lines:

Concordance line 3: in COCA ACADEMIC ‘Possible Explanation’ possible [nn*] (465 hits). While it is difficult to know with certainty, one possible explanation for this finding could be …

(what other conjunctions function as hedging functions? While/although/even though)

Here we have a hedging phrase, a hedging adjective, and a modal auxiliary. (Three hedging devices)

(What is the point of one hedge? A garden needs more than one hedge.)

Line 3: with modal verb.  The possible explanation for the insignificant (P>0.05) difference in rectal temperature during realimentation may be due to the fact …

Enter Possibly in COCA with Academic.

 ILI may possibly have contributed due to its role in micrometastatic disease, 93: especially mothers, may possibly suggest that mothers of children with LD might be more vulnerable to variations in affect

X may be seen/regarded/considered/ Task: Look up ‘can be’, ‘could be’ ‘may be’ ‘might be’)

Attenuation (weakening) and boosting (emphasizing)

It is reasonable to say (hedge + It seems reasonable (hedge + + It seems entirely reasonable (hedge + - +) plus, minus, plus. It seems quite reasonable (hedge + + +) plus, plus, plus. It may seem quite reasonable (hedge + + + +) plus, plus, plus plus

Verbs used in ‘hedging’: There is a group of verbs that can be used to refer to acts such as forecasting, suggesting and proposing. Often these verbs perform a hedging function in an academic text because all those acts are non-factual. Some useful verbs from this class are:

  • seem,
  • appear,
  • believe,
  • assume,
  • suggest,
  • speculate,
  • estimate,
  • tend,
  • think,
  • argue,
  • indicate,
  • project,
  • forecast

Use the above verbs to make statements 1-5 more hedged. There are often more alternatives that can be used, so list all the verbs that fit the purpose.

  1. Scientists say that the population of Europe will decline by 20% in the next fifty years.
  2. The figures show that migration to the cities will slow down over the next twenty years.
  3. When a region is hit by a food shortage, the inhabitants will migrate.
  4. Two-thirds of the world’s population live in poverty and misery.
  5. There are three broad schools of thought regarding overpopulation.
Task 3: The following sentences are grammatically correct but could be made more

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academic by hedging. Try to identify where the hedging has to
be conducted and how it can be done. Try to hedge them using the corpus tools.

Hedging examples:

  • The negotiation has been initiated due to the fact that both, American and European, companies have to deal with different standards in all industries. These factors slow growth and international trade.
  • It also also aimed to create a market which is more competitive, in which companies can take over public assignments. This shall reduce the countries’ costs in the public sector.
  • Greece, a country with a ‘doomed’ economy, according to the current Journalistic reports.
  • The crisis in Greece occurred due to the failure of fiscal policy.
  • Astonishingly, the poverty rate stayed fairly modest in Greece during the crisis (Matsaganis).
  • The carbon dioxide emissions rose during the past centuries dramatically. The gas is responsible for the greenhouse effect, thus resulting in the rise of the temperature.
  • If the deposit facility keeps being this low it will expand the housing bubble until eventually bursting with possibly devastating effects not only on the Germany economy but also on the whole European economy.
  • Shaping a business success is only possible with a great image as well as a strong identity.
  • As it was necessary to analyse the potential of online channels this survey proves that online communication holds a great potential
  • Furthermore, the increase of crime and terrorism is a major threat.
  • The widespread use of antibiotic treatments is another consequence, which is responsible for the development of drug resistant pathogens.

Checking for coherence in an argument It is important in writing an argument to make clear the links (connections) between concepts and details. Study the underlined connectives in the text below, then put each into the appropriate column in the grid according to the type of relationship (support, contrast, etc.) they have with the main argument.


Although genetic research can determine the heritability of some diseases, the genetic foundations of behavior are much more difficult to identify. For one thing, from a genetic point of view, physical traits such as the colour of a person’s hair, have a much higher heritability than behavior. In fact, behavior genetics assumes that the genetic bases of an individual’s behavior simply cannot be determined. Consequently, researchers have focused their efforts on the behavior of groups, particularly families. However, even controlled studies of families have failed to establish conclusive links between genetics and behavior, or indeed between genetics and particular psychological traits and aptitudes. It would seem that in theory these links probably exist; in practice, however, researchers have been unable to isolate traits that are unmodified by environmental factors. For example, musical aptitude seems to recur in certain families. While it is tempting to assume that this aptitude is an inherited genetic trait, it would be a mistake to ignore the environment. Hence what is colloquially known as ‘talent’ is probably a combination of genetic and other, highly variable, factors.

Linking adverbials. The main function of linking adverbials is to clarify the connection between two units of discourse. Because they explicitly signal the link between passages of text, they are important devices for cohesion. The five major semantic categories are: enumeration and addition, summation, apposition, result/inference, and contrast/concession.

  1. Enumeration and addition.

    Linking adverbials can be used to enumerate (list) pieces of information, or to signal the addition of items to a list, e.g. firstly, secondly, finally, in addition, similarly. Typical addition adverbials are: also, by the same token, further, furthermore, likewise, moreover.

  2. Summation.

    This signals that a unit of discourse concludes or sums up points made in the preceding discourse: e.g. In sum, then, to account for a synchronic assimilation from K to T, the process must apply along …

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Typical summation adverbials: to conclude, in conclusion,
overall, to summarize.
  1. Apposition.

    This shows that the following piece of text is equivalent to, or included in, the point made in the preceding discourse. An apposition adverbial may introduce the second unit as a restatement of the first, reformulating it in some way or statin it more explicitly.

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Typical apposition adverbials: In other words, i.e.,
e.g., for example, which is to say, that is to say, for instance, namely, specifically.
  1. Result/inference. This signals that the second unit of discourse states the results or consequences of the preceding discourse: Typical result/inference adverbials: consequently, thus, hence, therefore.
  2. Contrast/concession. These mark some kind of contrast or conflict between information in different discourse units. Some of these adverbials clearly mark contrasting alternatives. Typical contrast/concession adverbials.

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Contrast: In contrast,
alternatively, on the other hand, conversely, on the contrary, by comparison.
Concession: Nevertheless, besides, in any case, in
spite of that, yet.

Frequency of semantic categories. In comparison with conversation, fiction and news, academic prose not only has the most common use of linking adverbials, it also shows the most diversity of meaning. Since a very important aspect of academic prose is presenting and supporting explanations and arguments, ideas often need to be overtly connected:

Example: To summarize, there is no class of healthy ruminant for which the direct effects of low air temperature per se are likely to cause intolerable stress in the temperate and cool zones of the world. Moreover, the effects of air temperature on food conversion efficiency below the critical temperature are likely to affect only the smallest animals and at a time when their daily intake is very small relative to lifetime requirements. Thus there are no sound economic grounds for providing any more environmental control for the healthy animal than shelter from excessive air movement and precipitation.

Notice that each sentence begins with a linking adverbial. A single sentence may even contain more than one linking adverbial. Example: There must, in addition, be some reason why water excretion by the kidney has failed, however, since ingestion of hypotonic fluid does not ordinarily lead to progressive dilution of body fluids.

The most common types of linking adverbials in academic prose are result/inference, apposition, and contrast/concessive adverbials – all these help to structure arguments and explanations.

Linking words. There are many different ways for producers and editors of television news programmes to frame a news story

  1. _______________ they can no longer be considered objective. Three frequently used techniques have been identified; altering the language of news stories, providing dramatic structure to programmes and using different presentations tools associated with television production.

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It is the job of a journalist to choose his
or her words carefully so the main events of the story are clear and different points of view are presented to viewers. Journalists often believe that the stories they have to tell will be difficult for the audience to understand.
  1. _________________ they simplify their message to make it less complex. Journalists,
  2. ______________________ may argue that they are just reporting ‘the facts’, sometimes do not provide enough context for a story to make it comprehensible to readers or viewers. 4) ________________ someone watching the story does not get the full picture and does not get enough objective information to allow them to form their own point of view.

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Editors are under pressure to keep audience
numbers high
  1. ___________________ they think very carefully about how they can get viewers’ attention at the start of a news programme and hold on to it.
  2. ________________ some news bulletins begin with a human interest story,
  3. _____________ is perhaps not as important as some political news. Editors put news items in a particular order to give viewers the impression that the programme keeps moving forward. In order to create this sense of pace, some news stories are shortened and viewers do not see a truly objective version of the news.

Read the extract again and complete it with the best linking phrases from the following list.

  1. also/so.
  2. Furthermore/As a result.
  3. that/who.
  4. This can mean that/On the other hand.
  5. so/but.
  6. in addition to /This is the reason that.
  7. which/who.
  8. Meanwhile/Consequently.

Marking Criteria Below is a set of marking criteria and a set of comments from teachers at an educational institution. Your task is to match the teacher’s comments to the criteria they have been using. The first has been done for you.

D. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Content Criteria Teacher’s Comments 1 Introduction which highlights the questions and establishes the writer’s point of view (thesis/argument) A Students should show that they understand the ideas that they are discussing. It is not enough just to define the concepts; they should be able to evaluate them as well. 2 Well organized with a clear overall progression of details B Students need to show that they have thought about the ideas they are discussing and are not merely repeating what they have heard in a lecture or read in a book. 3 Demonstrates clear understanding of concepts C Any claim that is made needs to be supported by examples and other relevant evidence. The sources of the evidence must be academically reliable. 4 Evidence of critical thinking about theories and ideas discussed in the essay D This shows that the student is dealing with the topic in the essay title and tells the reader how the topic is to be answered. 5 Provides adequate and relevant support for claims that are made E This is the last chance the writer has to impress the reader. This section should restate the writer’s strongest arguments in support of her claim. 6 The main points are made The essay should have an appropriate paragraph structure with clear and precise sentences that develop the arguments in a coherent and logical way. 7 Arguments are carefully constructed The reader should be clearly able to follow the argument without getting confused and having to go back and read it all again. 8 Accurate in terms of grammatical usage, appropriateness of vocabulary and spelling Students often fail to follow the referencing system asked for by their departments. They do not seem to think it is important how references are written. 9 Use up-to-date research sources, correctly referenced using a bibliographical system approved by your lecturers It is amazing how many students do not proof-read their essays before handing them in. Inaccurate grammar and spelling makes it very difficult to read and so the writer loses marks.

Labelling discourse

Often at the end of a stretch of discourse we have a retrospective label which serves to encapsulate or package that particular text. It is not a repetition or a synonym of any preceding part rather it is presented as an equivalent to the clause(s).

Example: … the patients’ immune system recognised the mouse antibodies and rejected them. This meant they did not remain in the system long enough to be fully effective.

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The second generation antibody now

under development is an attempt to get around this problem by ‘humanising’ the mouse antibodies, using a technique developed by …

The label tells the reader to interpret the rejection of the mouse antibodies as a problem. This is anticipated by the description of the antibodies as not ‘fully effective’, providing the framework for the solution to be described.

The labels are often general nouns such as:

  • man,
  • creature,
  • thing,
  • stuff,
  • matter,
  • move,
  • question,
  • idea and
  • fact.

These labels may add something new to the argument by signalling the writer’s evaluation of the propositions which they encapsulate. Some nouns, for example, statement, belief and view can termed ‘attitudinally neutral’, though they may well take on positive or negative meanings in discourse, according to their lexical environment.

Many labels are nominalizations of verb processes, usually acts of communication. TASK: try to sort the following labels into positive, neutral or negative, and decide if they tend to be strong or weak. Accusation seems to be negative and rather strong. Admission negative but rather weak. Of course, this analysis only really makes sense in a specific context.

Accusation, admission, advice, affront, allegation, announcement, answer, appeal, argument, assertion, charge, claim, comment, complaint, compliment, conclusion, contention, criticism, decision, denial, disclosure, excuse, explanation, indication, objection, observation, point, prediction, proposal, proposition, reassurance, recognition, recommendation, rejection, remark, reminder, reply, report, request, response, revelation, statement, suggestion, warning.

In the five extracts below, I have deleted the words; - observation, - comment, - criticism, - accusation, - rejection and - suggestion.


    # Rhetoric, or " the art of using language effectively " (Brooks &; Warren, 1979, p. 5), has fallen on hard times. Commonly dismissed in ordinary speech and the media as " mere, " rhetoric typically connotes " phony " speech. This _________

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is hardly new. As far
back as Petronius (circa 27-66 AD), a noted Roman writer and satirist and courtier to the emperor Nero, public speakers (or " rhetors, " as they were called in Roman times) were being accused of using an " empty discord of words " and " windy and high-sounding bombast " (Petronius, 1966, pp. 1-2). Mackin (1969) offered several other reasons for the general public's current low opinion of rhetoric.
  1. A ________________ attributed to Michelangelo at the age of 87 sums it up: " Ancora imparo. " (" I am still learning. ") Action research and evidence-based practice set the course, mapped the journey, and focused my practice through a lens of reflection. I can't wait to see where the journey takes me next!
  2. Several Canadian women's and gender historians have raised the question of equity and diversity in their history departments in the context of discussions of the status of women in the history profession. Some historians of Aboriginal history have also offered constructive ________________of institutions of higher learning.
  3. De Jongh (38) stresses the auton-omy of each work and the need to judge each " case on its merits, " an _______________that applies to prints that are dated years apart as well as prints and paintings.
  4. This more aggressive stance annoyed the Soviet leader, especially in light of the promises made at Yalta, and contributed to his _____________of Soviet involvement in the Marshall Plan. Stalin used this as a pretext to announce the reformation of the Communist Information Bureau, or COMINFORM, in late 1947 to better spread the communist gospel (Mee 204)
  5. Composite figures are not available. (Jennifer Speirs, personal communication.) # (n7) This ________________is supported by evidence from research in the US which suggests that those who do not search have a more positive sense of self and relation with their adoptive parents (Carp 2002:450, citing Aumend and Barrett 1984).

It may be interesting to see how adjectives are used to boost or tone down these labels. For instance, if we look at adjectives with accusation, we find the most common false accusation. This seems to undermine or qualify the force of accusation. On the other hand, serious accusation and damning accusation make it stronger. Similarly if we look at remark, which seems a relatively neutral word, we find many adjectives the precede it. Memorable, famous, sarcastic, careless, illconsidered, prophetic, revealing, oversimplified, profound, nonsensical, key. Which of these would you consider positive and which negative?

In groups, look at adjectives which collocate with some of these labels and see if the adjectives boost or tone down the key label. Each group can take one line and choose the more interesting words:

7.2 Parallelism

Definition of Parallelism

Parallelism is the use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter. Parallelism examples are found in literary works as well as in ordinary conversations.

This method adds balance and rhythm of sentences giving ideas a smoother flow and thus can be persuasive because of the repetition it employs. For example, “Alice ran into the room, into the garden, and into our hearts.” We see the repetition of a phrase that not only gives the sentence a balance but rhythm and flow as well. This repetition can also occur in similar structured clauses e.g. “Whenever you need me, wherever you need me, I will be there for you.” These are simple examples of parallelism. In the text below see if you can find examples of parallelism, variation and repetition.


Match the sentences in terms of parallelism (1-5, A-E).

  1. The budget deficit is swelling and
  2. Good presidents make history.
  3. Great companies can survive boring names but
  4. Not only the balance and cashflow are interesting;
  5. Banks say publicly they are open to the idea of more competition. Some are starting to release data more readily.
  1. even the best names cannot save dismal companies.
  2. individual transactions can be revealing, too.
  3. But many fear they are fighting fintech with one hand behind their backs.
  4. foreign-exchange reserves are dwindling.
  5. Bad ones make history textbooks. These are simple examples of parallelism. In the text below see if you can find examples of parallelism, variation and repetition.


Model Text

An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism

Peter Hall and David Soskice

Introduction Political economists have always been interested in the differences in economic and political institutions that occur across countries. Some regard these differences as deviations from ‘best practice’ that will dissolve as nations catch up to a technological or organizational leader. Others see them as the distillation of more durable historical choices for a specific kind of society, since economic institutions condition levels of social protection, the distribution of income, and the availability of collective goods – features of the social solidarity of a nation. In each case, comparitive political economy revolves around the conceptual framework used to understand institutional variation across nations.

On such frameworks depend the answers to a range of important questions. Some are policy-related. What kind of economic policies will improve the performance of the economy? What will governments do in the face of economic challenges? What defines a state’s capacities to meet such challenges? Other questions are firm-related. Do companies located in different nations display systematic differences in their structure and strategies? If so, what inspires such differences? How can national differences in the pace or character of innovation be explained? Some are issues about economic performance. Do some sets of institutions provide lower rates of inflation and unemployment or higher rates of growth than others? What are the trade-offs in terms of economic performance to developing one type of political economy rather than another? Finally, second-order questions about institutional change and stability are of special significance today. Can we expect technological progress and the competitive pressures of globalization to inspire institutional convergence? What factors condition the adjustment paths a political economy takes in the face of such challenges?

The object of this book is to elaborate a new framework for understanding the institutional similarities and differences among the developed economies, one that offers a new and intriguing set of answers to such questions. We outline the basic approach in this Introduction. Subsequent chapters extend and apply it to a wide range of issues. In many respects, this approach is still a work-in-progress. We see it as a set of contentions that open up new research agendas rather than settled wisdom to be accepted uncritically, but, as the contributions to this volume indicate, it provides new perspectives on an unusually broad set of topics, ranging from issues in innovation, vocational training, and corporate strategy to those associated with legal systems, the development of social policy, and the stance nations take in international negotiations.

As any work on this topic must be, ours is deeply indebted to prior scholarship in the field. The ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach developed here can be seen as an effort to go beyond three perspectives on institutional variation that have dominated the study of comparative capitalism in the preceding thirty years. In important respects, like ours, each of these perspectives was a response to the economic problems of its time.

The first of these perspectives offers a modernization approach to comparative capitalism nicely eludiated in Schonfield’s magisterial treatise of 1965. Devised in the post-war decades, this approach saw the principal challenge confronting the developed economies as one of modernizing industries still dominated by pre-war practices in order to secure high rates of national growth. Analysts tried to identify a set of actors with the strategic capacity to devise plans for industry and to impress them on specific sectors. Occasionally, this capacity was said to reside in the banks but more often in public officials. Accordingly, those taking this approach focused on the institutional structures that gave states leverage over the private sector, such as planning systems and public influence over the flows of funds in the financial system (Cohen 1997; Estrin and Holmes 1983; Zysman 1983; Cox 1986). Countries were often categorized, according to the structure of their state, into those with ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ states (Katzenstein 1978b; Sacks 1980; Nordlinger 1981). France and Japan emerged from this perspective as models of economic success, while Britain was generally seen as a laggard (Schonfield 1965; Johnson 1982).


Especially in your literature review you will need to show that you have read a wide range of sources and it is important to reference them correctly. Remember to keep a list of all the sources you have referenced, it can be very annoying try to chase up a reference for an important quotation at the last minute. In the body of your text you may use different styles but the Harvard style is one of the easiest. This is also called the author/date style. Example: Ryan (2014: 11) warns that universities ‘must provide professional development to support the academic development of their staff’. The author has been identified by her name and the date of publication from which the quotation comes. If the quotation is longer, three to four lines, then it deserves its own indented paragraph. Example:

This point is made by the Australian National Training Authority (2013: 15) when, in a report for their Flexible Learning Framework, they try and identify what they mean by e-Learning:

‘e-Learning is a broader concept (than online learning), encompassing a wide set of applications and processes which use all available electronic media to deliver vocational education and training more flexibly. The term “e-Learning” is now used in the Framework to capture the general intent to support a broad range of electronic media …’

Some writers do not use quotations marks with such a long quotation, arguing that the indentation indicates clearly that the block of text is a quotation. You may also want to have the longer quotation in a different font size to make it clear that it is a quotation.


Park, C. (2003) ‘In other people’s words: plagiarism by university students – literature and lessons’, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(5): 471-88 Phillips, E.M. and Pugh, D.S. (2007). How to Get a Ph.D.: A Handbook for Students and their Supervisors. Berkshire: Open University Press, p. 15

‘p’ refers to one page, ‘pp’ indicates a range of pages (e.g. pp. 25-41). You do not need to quote every source that you reference; especially if it is a well-known work that is often referred to. Example:

Laurillard (2013) argues that e-Learning requires new skills to deal with a new pedagogy. You are referencing a main argument in Laurillard’s work and one that your marker is probably familiar with.

If we have two or more references, list them chronologically and separate the authors by a semi-colon. Example: Academic staff support is crucial to the success of e-Learning (Bates 2000, Epic 2002, Gerrard 2004). If an author has more than one publication in the same year, then refer to the first one as ‘a’ and the second one as ‘b’, etc., ‘Thompson (2003a, 2003b) holds consistently to the view that referencing is a dying art’. If your source has more than two authors, it is conventional to cite the first author and refer to the others as ‘et al.’ meaning ‘and others’. For example, ‘Smith et al. (2015)’. Et al. is actually an abbreviation of ‘et alii, or et alia, etc.’. In your References section you should insert all the names of the authors, not just the first author.

If you are citing the same source continually, then you may use the Latin word ibid. (=ibidem) meaning ‘in the same place’. This indicates you are referring to the previously cited source.

Barlow and Hogarth (2007) argue that mobile technologies are detrimental to the educational development of university students. Perceptions of the advantages of interconnectivity are often exaggerated. Even the simple skill of handwriting has been replaced by ungrammatical abbreviations (ibid.).

You can use op. cit. (= opera citato) to indicate you are referring to a source that you have already cited (somewhere) in your dissertation. Op. cit. is different from ibid. in that ibid. refers only to the last source cited whereas op. cit. refers to a source cited somewhere previously in your dissertation.

Biggam and Murphy (2009) recommend a strategic approach to tackling plagiarism in universities. Other academics adopt a similar position (Thomson 2003; Edwards 2005; Smith 2006). Differences of opinion surface, however, when it comes to deciding upon appropriate levels of punishment for transgressors. Some researchers argue for leniency, claiming that students are victims themselves. Biggam and Murphy (op. cit.) refute this line of argument.

Occasionally, you might come across a source that you wish to quote, but you notice a mistake in the source text: you should not correct the linguistic mistake but quote verbatim and put sic in square brackets (i.e. [sic]) to show that you have noticed this mistake. ‘Sic’ is Latin and stands for ‘thus, so, as it stands’.

Grearson (1982: 10) captured the essence of Thatcher’s Britain when he observed that the ‘age of consumerism is well and trully [sic] integrated into today’s society’. You may insert a word or phrase that makes it clear to the reader what a quotation is referring to:

Stevenson claims that sexism is rife in the modern world: ‘too often they [females] are treated as second class citizens’.

Your references chapter, which tends to appear after your conclusion chapter and before any appendices, is an alphabetical list of your sources.

Book Author’s surname, initials (year). Title of book, Place of publication: Publisher. Davenport T.H. (2013) Working Knowledge. Boston: Harvard Business School Press 4.

Journal Author’s surname, initials (year). ‘Title of article’, Name of Journal, volume number (issue number): page (s). Burns, E. (1994). ‘Information Assets, Technology and Organisation’. Management Science, 40(12): 645-62.

Website Author’s surname, initials (year). ‘Title of article’ [online]. Available at: indicate website address. Last accessed: date

Brender, A. (2004). ‘Speakers Promote Distance Education to Audience in Asia’ [online]. Available at: Last accessed 12 November 2004. Key verbs: formal and informal.

The first refers to an important verb in the Word list, second to the phrasal verb (common verb – Cambridge dictionary online) and then the one of the main nouns it collocates with

– with COCA enter verb gap [nn*] under academic.
1 Abandon
1 Leave/ Give up
1 activities
2 access
2 to get at/open
2 information/resources
3 achieve
3 to succeed in reaching something
3 success/goals
4 acquire
4 to get something
4 Knowledge/skills
5 adjust
5 to change something (slightly)
5 instruction/prices

Further interesting verbs for those writing academic English:

A: Advocate, affect, allocate, amend, analyse, anticipate, appreciate, approach, assess, assign, assist, assume, assure, attain, benefit.
C: cease, challenge, cite, clarify, commence, commit, communicate, compensate, compile, comprise, conceive, conclude, conduct, confirm, consist, constitute, construct, consume, contradict, contribute, convert, convince, cooperate, coordinate, correspond, create.
D: debate, decline, deduce, define, deny, derive, design, detect, deviate, devote, diminish, discriminate, displace, display, dispose, distort, distribute, document, dominate.
E: edit, eliminate, emerge, enable, encounter, enforce, enhance, ensure, erode, establish, estimate, evaluate, evolve, exceed, exclude, exhibit, exploit, expose, extract.
F: facilitate, feature, fluctuate, focus.
G: generate, grade, grant, guarantee.
H, I: highlight, identify, illustrate, impact, implement, imply, impose, incline, indicate, induce, infer, inhibit, initiate, input, insert, inspect, integrate, interact, interpret, invest, investigate, invoke, involve.
J, L, M: justify, label, link, locate, maintain, manipulate, maximise, mediate, minimise, modify, monitor.
N, O, P: negate, obtain, occur, offset, participate, perceive, persist, pose, precede, predict, presume, proceed, promote, publish, pursue.
R: react, refine, regulate, reinforce, reject, rely, remove, require, reside, resolve, respond, restrain, restrict, retain, reveal, revise.
S: secure, select, shift, simulate, specify, stress, submit, substitute, supplement, survey, suspend, sustain.
T,V: terminate, trace, transfer, transform, transmit.


Introduction: F Issues and review of related literature: D Research methods: B Case study results: E Conclusion: C References: A

Notes on 2.4.2

  • that the packaging industry needs to change their view towards an more environmentally friendly angle.
  • Enter the phrase ‚more environmentally friendly‘ into COCA and there are some interesting nouns.
  • Steward then left the board of directors and came in can you look up verbs with penalty for the penalty.

this paper means to highlight how their stereotype has changed See corpus for phrase ‘this paper’ and verbs

Though these given numbers are not exactly vast examples on how women have changed See JTW for adjectives before examples. This can enhance the fact that women

1.4 Moves 2 Match the moves in a work of academic writing/research article (1-11) with the appropriate phrases

  • 1 Writing introductions/Establishing the importance of the topic
  • A Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of
  • 2 Referring to literature
  • 3 Being critical
  • 4 Describing Methods
  • 5 Reporting results
  • 6 Discussions
  • 7 Writing conclusions
  • 8 Writing definitions
  • 9 Giving examples
  • 10 Classifying and listing
  • 11 Describing causes and effects
  • 12 Comparing and contrasting
  • 13 Writing about the past
  • 14 Describing trends and projections
  • A Having discussed how to construct X, the final section of this paper addresses ways of …
  • B 200,000 people per year become deaf owing to a lack of iodine.
  • C By way of illustration, Smith (2003) shows how the data for …
  • D One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is that …
  • E Social economics may be broadly defined as the branch of economics which is concerned with the measurement, causes and consequences of social problems.
  • F Associative learning can be categorized into classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was first …
  • G A serious weakness with this argument, however, is that (seems to be that) …
  • H Whereas Ghazali rejected non-Islamic philosophies, Aquinas incorporated ancient Greek thought into his own philosophical writings.
  • I The results of this study show/indicate that …
  • J The graph shows that there has been a slight increase in the number of divorces in England and Wales since 1981.
  • K There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of …
  1. Writing introductions/Establishing the importance of the topic: What are the adjectives that you expect with concept: See [j*] concept in COCA Key words: concept, see issue.

  2. A number of studies have investigated the effects of shared storybook reading on early literacy skills in a variety of preschool children, including those with disabilities and English language learners, with mixed results

    Key words: ‘studies have’

  3. This study had several limitations. The first limitation was duration. Results of this study provided only a snapshot of teachers' concerns about and levels of use of RTI at three different intervals across 5 months.

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key words: limitation,

  1. The sampling approach I used to select schools ensured that thesample was as representative as possible of the Western Australian demographic.
  2. As depicted in Figure 1, this model specified the autoregressive effects (i.e., stability of the constructs over time), the effect from parental marital distress to adolescent emotional adjustment, and the effect from adolescent emotional adjustment to parental marital distress
  3. The percent exact agreement in this study was found to be 69.4%, and the percent agreement plus or minus one was 97.2%. These values are slightly less than those reported by Daane et al. (2005), which were 81% for the former and 100% for the latter.
  4. Thefindings of this study have provided a general picture of Taiwanese college students' reading practices and profiles in both print- and Internet-based formats, and offer insight not only for future research but also for educational practice.
  5. The term social media refers to Internet websites that provide a forum for creating and exchanging information with a large number of people
  6. The Planning and Analysis Matrix (see Appendix) illustrates how information can be organized to verify selected environment criteria, identify strengths and weaknesses in the proposed learning environment,
  7. He identified two social types that recur in the Peter Arno cartoons.
  8. As a consequence, alterations to the type of fat and fatty acid composition is an approach that maintains the amount of fat needed for these functions in the light burger,
  9. In contrast to the M. pneumoniae findings, we found no significant differences in clinical characteristics between Chlamydia-positive and -negative patients (Table 3).
  10. I want to add to these discussions a new perspective on the nineteenth century histories of Ewe textiles in relation of Asante cloth, based on a combination of sources that have so far not been often studied.
  11. The graph on page 20 shows the pattern of this water consumption
  12. When asked about the extent to which participants believe the use of digital, technology-based techniques and tools influence the student's growth in technology, the average response was 3.9 on a scale of 1-5, with 5 representing the most impact.
  13. This chapter builds on the substantial common faith laid out in the previous chapter.


# Rhetoric, or " the art of using language effectively " (Brooks &; Warren, 1979, p. 5), has fallen on hard times. Commonly dismissed in ordinary speech and the media as " mere, " rhetoric typically connotes " phony " speech. This accusation is hardly new. As far back as Petronius (circa 27-66 AD), a noted Roman writer and satirist and courtier to the emperor Nero, public speakers (or " rhetors, " as they were called in Roman times) were being accused of using an " empty discord of words " and " windy and high-sounding bombast " (Petronius, 1966, pp. 1-2). Mackin (1969) offered several other reasons for the general public's current low opinion of rhetoric.

A comment attributed to Michelangelo at the age of 87 sums it up: " Ancora imparo. " (" I am still learning. ") Action research and evidence-based practice set the course, mapped the journey, and focused my practice through a lens of reflection. I can't wait to see where the journey takes me next!

Several Canadian women's and gender historians have raised the question of equity and diversity in their history departments in the context of discussions of the status of women in the history profession. Some historians of Aboriginal history have also offered constructive criticism of institutions of higher learning.

De Jongh (38) stresses the auton-omy of each work and the need to judge each " case on its merits, " an observation that applies to prints that are dated years apart as well as prints and paintings.

This more aggressive stance annoyed the Soviet leader, especially in light of the promises made at Yalta, and contributed to hisrejection of Soviet involvement in the Marshall Plan. Stalin used this as a pretext to announce the reformation of the Communist Information Bureau, or COMINFORM, in late 1947 to better spread the communist gospel (Mee 204)

Composite figures are not available. (Jennifer Speirs, personal communication.) # (n7) This suggestion is supported by evidence from research in the US which suggests that those who do not search have a more positive sense of self and relation with their adoptive parents (Carp 2002:450, citing Aumend and Barrett 1984).